The souring of African sorghum beer is done by lactic acid fermentation, and is responsible for the distinct sour taste. Xanthomonas vasicola pv. There are hundreds of common names. and that it existed there around 1000 B.C.E. Sorghum has a waxy coating on its leaves and stems which helps to keep water in the plant even in intense heat. The inflorescence and grain (fruit/seed) is a panicle and sorghum is characterized by spikelets borne in pairs (FAO 1995a). It is a close relative of sugar cane (Saceharum officinarum), which belongs to the same tribe. S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. As a grain sorghum, it is used as food for people and for livestock and poultry. Life Cycle: Winter months are spent in the larval stage in aborted sorghum seeds. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. In the United States, sorghum grain is used primarily as a maize substitute for livestock feed because their nutritional values are very similar. As grain sorghum is considered a “low-input” crop, N is typically one of the first inputs growers reduce in order to cut costs. Nutritional quality of foods prepared from sorghum and millets. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. and the domesticated ones no earlier than CE 100. It has an alcohol content that can vary between one percent and eight percent. Chapter VII Sorghum: Post-harvest Operations. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds. Br. Being drought tolerant and heat tolerant, it is especially important in arid regions. Sorghum beer is known by many different names in various countries across Africa, including burukuto (Nigeria), pombe (East Africa) and bil-bil (Cameroon). African sorghum beer is high in protein, which contributes to foam stability, giving it a milk-like head. Foliage The 2 ft. (0.6 m) long, lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately along a stout, hairless, somewhat upward branching stem and have distinct, white midribs. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. 4. johnsongrass. Stressed plants, even at later stages of growth, can also contain toxic levels of cyanide. On December 20, 2006, Anheuser-Busch of St. Louis, Missouri announced the release of their new "Redbridge" beer product. Therefore, with an average emergence rate of 75%, sorghum should be planted at a rate of 2 to 12 kilograms of seed per hectare. Sorghum streaky spot, bacterial leaf streak. Xanthomonas vasicola pv.holcicola; previously, Xanthomonas campestris pv. African sorghum beer is a brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour taste. In eastern Karnataka and the Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh, roti (Jonna rotte) made with sorghum is the staple food. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. Holcus bicolor L. (1771) Setaria vulgare ; Sorghum cernuum (Ard.) Stubble with secondary growth must be pastured carefully because of the danger of prussic acid (HCN) poisoning. The plant finds 75 percent of its water in the top meter of soil, and because of this, in dry areas, the plant’s production can be severely affected by the water holding capacity of the soil. The crop may also be attacked by corn earworms, aphids, and some Lepidoptera larvae, including turnip moth. Sorghum streaky spot, bacterial leaf streak. Sorghum halepense var. Common Name(s): sorghum : Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Global Species Completeness: partial : … Commercial sorghum refers to the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum. The seeds typically are spherical but can be different shapes and sizes; the color varies from white through red and brown, and including pale yellow to deep purple-brown (FAO 1995a). Sweet sorghums are used for producing syrups and molasses (the plants are closely related to sugar cane) and grass sorghums are used for pasture and hay. Overview Appearance Sorghum halepense is a tall (up to 8 ft. [2.4 m]), rhizomatous, perennial grass that invades open areas throughout the United States. Redbridge is the first sorghum based beer to be nationally distributed in the United States. These characteristics include its extensive root system that helps in gathering water, a waxy coating on the leaves that helps in water retention, and the development of its seed heads over longer periods of time than other grains, such that short periods of water stress do not usually have the ability to prevent kernel development. Host; Sorghum vulgare Pers. Sorghum, common name for maize-like grasses native to Africa and Asia, where they have been cultivated since ancient times. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Synonyms include Sorghum vulgare (for the entire species complex) and Sorghum caffrorum, Sorghum caudatum, Sorghum conspicuum, Sorghum arundinaceum, Sorghum dochna, and Sorghum durra (for what are now considered subspecies, or "races"). Sorghum sudanense; Preferred Common Name. Pages 191-283 in K. H. Steinkraus, ed.. Trinder, D. W. 1998. Different types of Sorghum bicolor are recognized including grain sorghums, sweet sorghums, and grass sorghums. Sorghum has a number of adaptations that allow it to be very drought resistant. The FAO reports that 440,000 square kilometers were devoted worldwide to sorghum production in 2004. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. Rarely will you find a kernelless season for sorghum, even under the most adverse water conditions. A waxy coating on the leaves and stems helps to retrain water even in intense heat. Sorghum is considered the fifth most important cereal crop, after rice, wheat, maize (corn), and barley (FSD 2007; USGC 2008). S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. Sudanese Family: Poaceae Warm-Season Grass Introduction, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Sorghum&oldid=1027459, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Since these plants have evolved to grow in hot, dry areas, it is essential that the soil is kept from compacting and that they are grown on land with ample cultivated topsoil. It does not accumulate static electricity, so it is also being used in packaging materials for sensitive electronic equipment. The sorghum plants fields in Botswana. These plants are utilized for grain, fiber, and fodder. Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. There are about 30 species in the Sorghum genus, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. Phonetic Spelling SOR-gum ha-le-PEN-see This plant has low severity poison characteristics. Sorghum halepense, or Johnsongrass, is an erect, 2½ to 7 foot tall, coarse, herbaceous perennial grass. However, note Zohary and Hopf (2000), "the archaeological exploration of sub-Saharan Africa is yet in its early stages, and we still lack critical information for determining where and when sorghum could have been taken into cultivation.". There are many varieties. sudanense ; International Common Names. 1. The earliest archeological evidence comes from sites dated to the second millennium B.C.E. It is especially adapted to grow in dry areas but, being so rich in diversity, it also grows well in temperate and high altitude environments. African sorghum beer is said to be a traditional drink of the Zulu people of Southern Africa.
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