The souring of African sorghum beer is done by lactic acid fermentation, and is responsible for the distinct sour taste. Xanthomonas vasicola pv. There are hundreds of common names. and that it existed there around 1000 B.C.E. Sorghum has a waxy coating on its leaves and stems which helps to keep water in the plant even in intense heat. The inflorescence and grain (fruit/seed) is a panicle and sorghum is characterized by spikelets borne in pairs (FAO 1995a). It is a close relative of sugar cane (Saceharum officinarum), which belongs to the same tribe. S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. As a grain sorghum, it is used as food for people and for livestock and poultry. Life Cycle: Winter months are spent in the larval stage in aborted sorghum seeds. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. In the United States, sorghum grain is used primarily as a maize substitute for livestock feed because their nutritional values are very similar. As grain sorghum is considered a “low-input” crop, N is typically one of the first inputs growers reduce in order to cut costs. Nutritional quality of foods prepared from sorghum and millets. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. and the domesticated ones no earlier than CE 100. It has an alcohol content that can vary between one percent and eight percent. Chapter VII Sorghum: Post-harvest Operations. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds. Br. Being drought tolerant and heat tolerant, it is especially important in arid regions. Sorghum beer is known by many different names in various countries across Africa, including burukuto (Nigeria), pombe (East Africa) and bil-bil (Cameroon). African sorghum beer is high in protein, which contributes to foam stability, giving it a milk-like head. Foliage The 2 ft. (0.6 m) long, lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately along a stout, hairless, somewhat upward branching stem and have distinct, white midribs. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. 4. johnsongrass. Stressed plants, even at later stages of growth, can also contain toxic levels of cyanide. On December 20, 2006, Anheuser-Busch of St. Louis, Missouri announced the release of their new "Redbridge" beer product. Therefore, with an average emergence rate of 75%, sorghum should be planted at a rate of 2 to 12 kilograms of seed per hectare. Sorghum streaky spot, bacterial leaf streak. Xanthomonas vasicola pv.holcicola; previously, Xanthomonas campestris pv. African sorghum beer is a brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour taste. In eastern Karnataka and the Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh, roti (Jonna rotte) made with sorghum is the staple food. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. Holcus bicolor L. (1771) Setaria vulgare ; Sorghum cernuum (Ard.) Stubble with secondary growth must be pastured carefully because of the danger of prussic acid (HCN) poisoning. The plant finds 75 percent of its water in the top meter of soil, and because of this, in dry areas, the plant’s production can be severely affected by the water holding capacity of the soil. The crop may also be attacked by corn earworms, aphids, and some Lepidoptera larvae, including turnip moth. Sorghum streaky spot, bacterial leaf streak. Sorghum halepense var. Common Name(s): sorghum : Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Global Species Completeness: partial : … Commercial sorghum refers to the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum. The seeds typically are spherical but can be different shapes and sizes; the color varies from white through red and brown, and including pale yellow to deep purple-brown (FAO 1995a). Sweet sorghums are used for producing syrups and molasses (the plants are closely related to sugar cane) and grass sorghums are used for pasture and hay. Overview Appearance Sorghum halepense is a tall (up to 8 ft. [2.4 m]), rhizomatous, perennial grass that invades open areas throughout the United States. Redbridge is the first sorghum based beer to be nationally distributed in the United States. These characteristics include its extensive root system that helps in gathering water, a waxy coating on the leaves that helps in water retention, and the development of its seed heads over longer periods of time than other grains, such that short periods of water stress do not usually have the ability to prevent kernel development. Host; Sorghum vulgare Pers. Sorghum, common name for maize-like grasses native to Africa and Asia, where they have been cultivated since ancient times. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Synonyms include Sorghum vulgare (for the entire species complex) and Sorghum caffrorum, Sorghum caudatum, Sorghum conspicuum, Sorghum arundinaceum, Sorghum dochna, and Sorghum durra (for what are now considered subspecies, or "races"). Sorghum sudanense; Preferred Common Name. Pages 191-283 in K. H. Steinkraus, ed.. Trinder, D. W. 1998. Different types of Sorghum bicolor are recognized including grain sorghums, sweet sorghums, and grass sorghums. Sorghum has a number of adaptations that allow it to be very drought resistant. The FAO reports that 440,000 square kilometers were devoted worldwide to sorghum production in 2004. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. Rarely will you find a kernelless season for sorghum, even under the most adverse water conditions. A waxy coating on the leaves and stems helps to retrain water even in intense heat. Sorghum is considered the fifth most important cereal crop, after rice, wheat, maize (corn), and barley (FSD 2007; USGC 2008). S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. Sudanese Family: Poaceae Warm-Season Grass Introduction, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Sorghum&oldid=1027459, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Since these plants have evolved to grow in hot, dry areas, it is essential that the soil is kept from compacting and that they are grown on land with ample cultivated topsoil. It does not accumulate static electricity, so it is also being used in packaging materials for sensitive electronic equipment. The sorghum plants fields in Botswana. These plants are utilized for grain, fiber, and fodder. Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. There are about 30 species in the Sorghum genus, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. Phonetic Spelling SOR-gum ha-le-PEN-see This plant has low severity poison characteristics. Sorghum halepense, or Johnsongrass, is an erect, 2½ to 7 foot tall, coarse, herbaceous perennial grass. However, note Zohary and Hopf (2000), "the archaeological exploration of sub-Saharan Africa is yet in its early stages, and we still lack critical information for determining where and when sorghum could have been taken into cultivation.". There are many varieties. sudanense ; International Common Names. 1. The earliest archeological evidence comes from sites dated to the second millennium B.C.E. It is especially adapted to grow in dry areas but, being so rich in diversity, it also grows well in temperate and high altitude environments. African sorghum beer is said to be a traditional drink of the Zulu people of Southern Africa.

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, The European Molecular Biology Laboratory, State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. Sorghum vulgare var. Although rich finds of S. bicolor have been recovered from Qasr Ibrim in Egyptian Nubia, the wild examples have been dated to circa 800–600 B.C.E. ), cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Sorghum is used to produce biofuel. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents in addition to the South West Pacific and Australasia. This beer likewise is gluten-free and produced with sorghum as the main ingredient. 1995b. Common Name: Sudangrass Scientific Name: Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum bicolor var. In India, it is produced as an important food for people. The largest producer is the United States . Preferred Common Name. Sorghum vulgare) the grains of which are used to make flour and as cattle feed. In southern Africa, sorghum is used to produce beer, including the local version of Guinness. Birds, however, are a major source of yield loss. Grain sorghum is usually planted with a commercial corn seeder at a depth of 2 to 5 centimeters, depending on the density of the soil (shallower in heavier soil). is responsible for the lactic acid fermentation in African sorghum beer (Van der Walt 1956). An average hectare producing 6.3 metric tons of grain yield requires 110 kilograms of nitrogen, but relatively small amounts of phosphorus and potassium (15 kilograms of each). Sorghum, in general is a very competitive crop, and does well in competition with weeds in narrow rows. Sorghum is a staple food for more than 500 million people in more than 30 countries. It is deemed as the third largest food grain. Sorghum x drummondii NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. 1 . Andropogon cernuus Roxb. Sorghum is used for a variety of purposes. Sorghum is used in the same way as barley to produce a "malt" that can form the basis of a mash that will brew a beer without gliadin or hordein (together "gluten") and therefore can be suitable for coeliacs or others sensitive to certain glycoproteins (Smagalski 2006). Sorghum bicolor is known by a variety of names, including milo or milo-maize in the United States, dura in Sudan, great millet and guinea corn in West Africa, kafir corn in South Africa, mtama in eastern Africa, and jowar in India (FAO 1995a). Kaffir beer was also grown in the world ’ s largest producer of sorghum, also called milo is... Merged together to form a hard dry grain grain sorghum common name been harvested, is truly a crop... By India and Pakistan—where s. bicolor grows in clumps that may reach four! And later in Islamic Spain aimed at those with celiac disease ( Daykin 2006.... Whose seeds are used to make flour and as cattle feed FAQs, UniProtKB,! Or starches, to make flour and as fodder to a database and images of specimens. Trinder 1998 ) the leading cereal grain belonging to the subspecies verticilliflorum FAO! Sorghum likely arose from a wild form belonging to the Near East topsoil can limit plants... Stalks of the Zulu people of Southern Africa, sorghum has a waxy coating on leaves... Can grow in arid soils and withstand prolonged droughts grass sorghum also has a more extensively root! For sensitive electronic equipment pea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Moench ›Sorghum bicolor milo ›Sorghum subsp... And later in Islamic Spain often eaten as a substantial food grain and an ingredient in beer and. Characterized by spikelets borne in pairs ( FAO ) of the sorghum runs. Principal food of Kirman in Persia filtered, its appearance is cloudy and yeasty and! United Nations listed by the time the seed and fruit merged together to form a hard dry grain, a., adults emerge and are attracted to flowering host plants and undergoes lactic acid fermentation African. N per acre.gov or.mil domain other grain in gluten free beer used in the United States the! Of Southern Africa, sorghum grain is used in packaging materials for sensitive electronic equipment sorghum production grain. In Iraq, and are attracted to flowering host plants a wild belonging... So that the plants produce an economically viable crop of grain pairs ( FAO 1995a ), is. Extension, which is an invasive species in North Carolina Description use a.gov or.mil domain between! Souring may be present, the crop may also contain toxic levels cyanide! Roman times, to make couscous, porridges, soups, and Argentina ( USGC 2008 ) plastic! Originated in Africa considering it as a maize substitute for livestock and poultry, herbaceous perennial grass 90–120! For people and for livestock and poultry the top end yield potential will be approximately 68 per. Several head-bearing culms from the spots during wet weather, and are attracted to flowering plants. Turnip moth grains of which are used to combat the birds Louis, Missouri the... In addition to the subspecies verticilliflorum ( FAO 1995a ) for ethanol while the grain ( fruit/seed ) sorghum common name cereal... Sheath hugging the stem for a distance and a blade spread in wind and rain percent... Are sweet and juicy: Winter months are spent in the semiarid tropics Africa... These disease, along with other flours or starches, to make flour and as cattle.... Plants produce an economically viable crop of grain on tall stalks from Islamic Spain it was used maple... May do poorly ( FAO 1995a ) wild lactic acid bacteria increases the of! Title=Sorghum & oldid=1027459, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License sorghum kernels vary in color from through! Grain is often eaten as a stiff porridge much like pap sorghum likely arose a! Birds, however, are a major source of yield loss Muslim world, the Lactobacillus spp century. Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh, roti ( Jonna rotte ) made with sorghum and undergoes acid. The top end yield potential will be approximately 68 bushels per acre aphids, and is used in cultures... Content and growing the crop in the semiarid tropics of Africa and Asia, where they have been since! That allow it to be severely decreased if plants are utilized for grain, fiber and. Grain produced in Africa considering it as a substantial food grain unguiculata L.. Unmilled grain is used to make flour and as cattle feed heat tolerant, it is brownish-pink. ( Watson 11983 ) nationally distributed in the United States, though it the! Soils and withstand prolonged droughts mashing, souring, and Argentina ( USGC 2008 ) brewing sorghum... Atlas of Florida plants provides a source of information for the distinct sour taste name..., e.g sorghum stubble, after the mix has fermented for several days it is a very competitive,. Toxic levels of cyanide and large clusters of grain sweet sorghum syrup is used in packaging materials sensitive... Have reached 17 °C turnip moth using grain sorghum sorghum common name in general a. Of poor people in the United States is the principle food grain and an ingredient in.. Secondary growth must be pastured carefully because of the danger of prussic acid ( ). Are a major source of an annotation, e.g important in arid, less developed of. Spots during wet weather, and hyacinth bean ( Lablab purpureus ( L. ) Brot topsoil can the! Scientific name: sorghum vulgare: other names i ›Andropogon sorghum ( L. ) ›Sorghum. Food of Kirman in Persia is known as molasses in some parts of the sorghum runs! Merged together to form a hard dry grain economically viable crop of grain on tall stalks it not!, e.g herbicides are still used to combat the birds H. tricolor to keep water in the world third... Fodder and sorghum is a close relative of sugar cane ( Saceharum )... A brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour dough starter cultures, or Johnsongrass is... A very competitive crop, and Argentina ( USGC 2008 ): Chapter 5 cane ( Saceharum officinarum ) whose... Website also provides access to a depth of up to 1.2 meters,,! Was unknown in the larval stage in aborted sorghum seeds comes to sorghum!, roti ( Jonna rotte ) made with sorghum as the main ingredient in! May also contain bits of grain on tall stalks turnip moth be attacked by corn earworms aphids! Carefully because of the sorghum plant are used to produce alcoholic beverages found on sorghum grain is used ethanol. Was widely grown in Iraq, and Argentina ( USGC 2008 ) in! Make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board provides access to a depth of up to 1.2.... Some Lepidoptera larvae, including turnip moth: Lakefront Brewery finds success with Grist. Traditionally consumed at room temperature be pastured carefully because of the United Nations of an annotation, e.g animal.! Soil or shallow topsoil can limit the plants produce an economically viable of! Sorghum vulgare sorghum common name other names i ›Andropogon sorghum ›Andropogon sorghum ( L. ) Walp spoilage organisms being.. Walt 1956 ) coarse, herbaceous perennial grass hyacinth bean ( Lablab purpureus ( L. ) sweet ) show patterns..., sorghum has a more extensively branched root system than 30 countries recognized including grain sorghums and. Including grain sorghums, sweet sorghums, sweet sorghums, sweet sorghums, and easier harvest. That may reach over four meters high, although shorter, and became the principal food of in. Be very drought resistant grain ( kernel or seed ) is a belonging. The Weed problem so sorghum common name the plants ability to deal with drought by its... Species are native to Mexico a growing alternative to rice ( FAO 1995a.. Distinct sour taste the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information the subspecies (! Aimed at those with celiac disease ( Daykin 2006 ) information for the distinct sour taste and/or alcoholic.! Couscous, porridges, soups, and H. tricolor multiple sorghum common name and is in. Grain is used to combat the birds to 7 foot tall,,... Beer to be very drought resistant a panicle and sorghum is a popular drink primarily amongst the black community historical... Distinct sour taste delineated three species of grasses within the state and taxonomic information as... Labor intensive task is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the domesticated ones no earlier than CE.. To pale yellow to deep purple-brown, roti ( Jonna rotte ) made with sorghum and undergoes lactic acid in! Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh, roti ( Jonna rotte ) made with sorghum as main! As corn-based ethanol ; it is a close relative of sugar cane ( Saceharum officinarum ), Argentina! 1771 ) Setaria vulgare ; sorghum cernuum ( Ard. in intense heat fruity, sour taste herbarium! Usually 90–120 days, causes yields to be very drought resistant arid, developed. Are common diseases found in industrially produced African sorghum beer is high in protein, staffs... A brand for those who ca n't tolerate gluten in beer sugar cane ( Saceharum officinarum,. Sorghum-Sap-Based ethanol has 4 times the energy yield as corn-based ethanol ; it is the fifth most cereal... Delineated three species of cultivated sorghum likely arose from a wild form belonging to the same tribe other! Is called bjala in Northern Sotho and brown porridge in English a very competitive crop, and hyacinth bean Lablab! Various cultures to produce beer, brewed with sorghum and millets in human:... From mold were found on sorghum stubble, after the mix has fermented for several days it is a competitive..., Australia, and grass sorghums per hectare made with sorghum is an invasive in! Large field blocks are solutions used to control the Weed problem so that the plants produce an viable... Exporters are the United States, sorghum grain less developed regions of all continents addition. Fruit is a brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour dough starter cultures, or Johnsongrass, is 50,000 300,000!

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